PHP Performance: Additional CPU cores vs Faster CPU cores

Some time ago, I received an email from a client experiencing slow performance issues with a LEMP (Linux, Nginx, MySQL, and PHP web server). During a full audit, I found that the server’s load average was pretty low (see below screenshot). However, the website was indeed very slow. There were some misconfigurations, but one of […]

PHP 8: After 4 years, only 30% of PHP websites use it. But why?

Two years ago, one of our online community members discussed some of the reasons behind the slow adoption of PHP 8. One member stated that it’s due to PHP compatibility issues across new releases. In contrast, another put it down to the fact that important software/frameworks did not support PHP 8 until recently. I think […]

Strip Down Apache to Improve Performance & Memory Efficiency

Can you believe that it’s been more than a decade since the release of Apache 2.4?! If you haven’t replaced Apache with Nginx, then here’s a quick guide for boosting Apache’s performance using a method that’s often overlooked. Now, before we get into that, please note that I’m not claiming that Apache is faster than […]

5 database metrics every DBA should monitor for peak performance

Database monitoring is indispensable for maintaining the health, performance, and reliability of your database system. It provides administrators and IT teams with real-time insights into the system’s operations, enabling them to proactively identify and address potential issues before they need to be escalated. You can confirm your database operates efficiently and delivers optimal performance by […]

The Two Generals Problem

Alice and Bob Imagine there’s a city in a valley. On either side of the valley, there’s an army commanded by a general. On the left hill stands General Alice and her army. On the right hill, General Bob and his army. Alice and Bob want to capture the city, but neither side has an […]

Improving OpenVPN performance and throughput

OpenVPN, WireGuard, L2TP/IPSec, SSTP, IKEv2, PPTP, or others. If you had the luxury of choosing, which VPN protocols would you use? Therein lies my problem. In my current use case, I must find a way to improve OpenVPN performance and throughput. You may have been following my Linux home lab build. One of the most […]

Set PHP realpath_cache_size ‘correctly’

In 2012, I started enabling PHP realpath_cache_size and realpath_cache_ttl for performance benefits. At the time, I followed the settings I found here (has since been deleted). It bugged me that I was blindly setting the cache size without knowing how much storage was actually being used. In this post, I will demonstrate how to view the […]

PHP performance: oPcache Control Panels

OPcache is a PHP extension that improves PHP performance by storing precompiled script bytecode in shared memory, thereby removing the need for PHP to load and parse scripts on each request. The extension is built-in for PHP 5.5+. If you want to improve PHP performance, the first step should be to use PHP 8+, which […]

PHP Benchmarks: OPcache vs OPcache w/ Performance Tweaks

A few weeks ago, I wrote a short article highlighting GUI solutions for monitoring and controlling PHP OPcache. We all know that enabling PHP OPcache provides massive performance gains (see benchmark graph at the end of the article). In addition, since PHP 5.5, OPcache is now enabled by default. With these facts in mind, is […]

Observability, Getting Started – 50 Free Access and Open-Source Solutions

This article examines APM and observability solutions and tools. I’ve also included several quotes collected from observability companies who offer easy access to their platforms, and composed a list below of noteworthy observability solutions. I encourage observability providers to extend free and open access to their platforms and software, beyond free trials and without requiring […]

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